Wood Block printing
Wood block printing originated in East Asia for printing texts and images, but found its way to India where it became known for its uses in garment printing. Passed down through generations of the printing caste, chippas, it is most famously known in parts of Rajasthan with different regions specializing in varying dye techniques. Each block is carved by hand out of wood, and designs can vary in complexity from single color prints, to very detailed multi color textiles.
Dabu printing
Dabu printing is an ancient, labor intensive mud resist printing technique that hails from Rajasthan. While often lumped together with block printing, this technique is actually quite different. Instead of directly printing a pattern on the fabric, a mud resist paste is applied to isolate parts of the cloth (and design) from being dyed. After which, multiple steps of dyeing, washing, drying are carried out to achieve the final fabric. (For those of you familiar with the wax resist technique of batik, this is somewhat similar to that)
Bandhani
Bandhani, or Bandej, is a tie-dye technique that is practiced mainly in Rajasthan and Gujarat. Complex designs are hand-tied tightly with cotton thread and dyed. 
The smaller or more detailed the print, the more intricate the knot-work has to be. 
Mirror work
Known also as Sheesha embroidery, mirror work's origins can be traced back to the Mughal era. This type of embroidery can be found in many areas of India, but is mostly done in Gujarat and Rajasthan. In some regions and communities, it is believed that it is a form of protection against the evil eye.